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How to build classroom confidence in your child

How to build classroom confidence in your child

In an increasingly competitive world confidence and self-esteem have never been so important, and some would argue, hard to achieve. Self-confidence is the cornerstone to a successful life, opening up opportunities, affecting how others perceive us, and a critical element if one is to thrive at school, at work, and in personal relationships. A lack of confidence can lead to poor academic performance and social isolation. However, there are ways you can boost your child’s self-esteem and confidence.

Building confidence in your child will lay the groundwork for future success and solid self-esteem. So, as a parent, how can you foster confidence in your child at this crucial time in their development? Below we offer some practical tips and suggestions that you can implement immediately.

What is self esteem? Why does it matter?

Children who feel good about themselves have the confidence to try new things. They are more likely to give their best and feel proud of what they can do. Self-esteem helps children cope with mistakes and failures by giving them the confidence to try again. As a result, self-esteem helps children do better at school, at home, and with friends.

Children with low self-esteem feel unsure of themselves. If they think others won’t accept them, they may not join in, and may have a hard time standing up for themselves. They may give up easily, or not try at all as they find it hard to cope when they make a mistake, lose, or fail. As a result, they may not do as well as they could.

Children with high self-esteem:

  • feel liked and accepted
  • feel confident
  • feel proud of what they can do
  • feel positively about themselves
  • believe in themselves

Children with low self-esteem:

  • are self-critical and hard on themselves
  • feel they’re not as good as other children
  • think of the times they fail rather than when they succeed
  • lack confidence
  • doubt they can do things well

Opportunities to grow self esteem

Any time children try new things, practice new skills independently, or experience new learning that can be a chance for their self-esteem to grow. This can happen when children:

  • make progress toward a goal
  • learn a new concept or skill at school
  • make friends and get along
  • learn skills — music, sports, art, cooking, tech skills
  • practice favourite activities
  • help, give, or be kind
  • get praise for good behaviours
  • try hard at something
  • do things they’re good at and enjoy
  • are included by others
  • feel understood and accepted
  • get a prize or a good grade they know they’ve earned

When children have self-esteem, they feel confident, capable, and accepted for who they are. This is the state of being that we want to foster, as parents, teachers and adults involved in a child’s development.

General tips for boosting confidence in your child

Avoid over-praising

Your child knows when your praise is excessive. Over time, this has been shown to hurt a child’s self-confidence rather than boost it. Instead praise your child for effort, progress and attitude, and be as specific as possible.

For example: “You’re working hard on that project,” “You’re getting better and better at these spelling tests,” or, “I’m proud of you for practising your piano scales” With this kind of praise, children put effort into things, work toward goals, and persevere.

Be a good role model

When you put effort into everyday tasks (like making a meal, cleaning up the dishes, or washing the car), you’re setting a good example. Your child learns to put effort into doing homework, cleaning their room, or helping their siblings.

Modelling the right attitude counts too. When you do tasks cheerfully (or at least without grumbling or complaining), you teach your child to do the same. When you avoid rushing through chores and take pride in a job well done, you teach your child to do that too. Even if a task or project brings up negative emotions for you, express your feelings briefly and carry on with the tasks, don’t let them be the driving force.

Ban harsh criticism

The messages children hear about themselves from others easily translate into how they feel about themselves. Harsh words (“You’re so lazy!”) are harmful to self-esteem, and not motivating. Correct children with patience and focus on what you want them to do next time using positive language. For example rather than saying “That maths homework looks really hard, don’t worry, I know you find maths hard” (which reinforces that a) they are not good at maths and b) it is difficult and they shouldn’t expect to succeed) instead, you could say “Let’s look at this together – I bet we can work it out” or “Well done for persevering, I can see it’s a difficult task but you stuck with it. Great effort”. When needed, show them how and let them practice, allowing for mistakes as they learn.

Focus on strengths and encourage them to pursue personal interests

Pay attention to what your child does well and enjoys, and ensure your child has chances to develop these strengths. Encourage them to take on tasks they show interest in, then make sure they follow through to completion. It doesn’t matter what the task is —it could be anything from swimming laps to beating levels in a computer game. The point is for them to stick with what they start, so they feel a sense of accomplishment at the end.

Exploring their own interests can help children develop a sense of identity, which is essential to building confidence. Of course, seeing their talents grow will also give a huge boost to their self-esteem.

Let children help and give

Self-esteem grows when children see the effect of what they do and how it matters to others. Encourage your child to help out at home, do a community or volunteering project, or help a sibling. Helping and kind acts build self-esteem and other positive feelings.

Tips for boosting classroom confidence in your child

Get involved in your child’s learning

Are you just reading letters that occasionally come home from school, or are you actively getting involved in your child’s learning? Do you occasionally check in to see how they are getting on with their homework? Getting involved in your child’s learning shows you’re taking your child’s education seriously. This, in turn, will cause them to take it seriously and give them a boost of confidence.

Use open evenings and parents evenings as opportunities to build relationships with your child’s teachers. If your child is struggling with maths, for example, get to know his/her maths teacher. Make them aware that you care and they can contact you anytime with updates on your child’s progress.

Help them foster a love of learning

So how can you get your child to love science for example? Get them to see that science is all around us and help them see it in a different light. Watch science shows on TV with them, highlighting that science is part of many things from crime scene investigation programmes to wildlife documentaries.

There are also opportunities for museums and exhibitions during school breaks. The Royal Observatory in Greenwich, for example, has a Planetarium exhibition. The exhibition gives an almost real-life tour experience of the universe. As a result, your child starts to see science as fun and interesting and their confidence in the subject begins to grow.

Don’t forget to model learning behaviours – learning is for life, a privilege that expands our minds and brings us joy. Show your child that you enjoy learning and continue to do so every day, whether it be taking up an evening class, reading in your spare time or attending talks and exhibitions.

Teach them how to set achievable goals

Few things are more beneficial to self-esteem than success. Goal setting enables a child to visualise things that they ordinarily wouldn’t. And the action of taking daily steps to work towards their goals increases motivation and self-belief.

Goal setting helps a child imagine and visualise their possibilities and teaches them to be accountable. It stretches and challenges them; and as they start to achieve their goals, they begin to trust in their abilities. This in turn boosts their confidence.

Children can set goals in any area of their life; from academics to health to relationships. However, make sure the goals are achievable, if a child is constantly striving for unreachable goals recurrent failure will do more harm than good.

Instil a positive mindset

Having a positive mindset means believing that if you put your mind to something you can achieve it. Many children have a fixed mindset. If they are doing poorly in science, for example, they believe that they are not good at science. That limiting belief ultimately leads them to take actions that fulfil that prophecy. Having a positive, growth mindset improves self-esteem, reduces anxiety and depression, and leads to better grades.

One way you can help your child develop a positive mindset is to teach them that failure is actually a good thing and part of learning and growth. Praise your child for their effort rather than their natural intelligence. Children who are praised for their effort are always willing to keep trying. On the other hand, those who are praised for their intelligence avoid difficult tasks because they know they are less likely to be praised if they fail the task.

Give them 1:1 support

Amongst, hard work, consistency and self-confidence many top achievers swear by 1 to 1 coaching or mentoring. They say that having a coach catapulted their success. One way you can help your child improve their confidence at school is by having them work with a tutor. Having someone explain a concept to a child in a manner that is digestible and easy to understand helps boost their confidence.

Here at JK Educate, we are constantly receiving messages from parents telling us how their child’s confidence has increased at school once they start to receive regular tutoring. An effective tutor not only imparts subject knowledge, they also help the student with their planning and study schedule. They build a strong, professional relationship so that the student is comfortable asking them general non-academic questions. Essentially, they act as a mentor to help bolster the child’s confidence.

Confidence equals success

One of the greatest gifts we can give children is to instil in them a strong sense of confidence. In doing this, we enable them to be higher achievers. Confidence breeds success. If students believe they can succeed, they will succeed.

If you think your child has low confidence in the classroom, get closer to their studies and be aware of what they enjoy and succeed at compared to what they struggle with. Try using the tips laid out above, and if you are looking for additional tutoring, want to assess your child’s academic level, or need advice about your child’s education, JK Educate is here to help.

 

The Power of Online Tuition

At JK Educate, alongside our very successful at-home face-to-face tutoring service, online tuition has been a core option since 2018. Before March 2020 when Covid lockdowns meant that educational institutions had to use online teaching, there was still much debate over the effectiveness of online lessons. Many people supported the idea that children taught face-to-face were receiving more effective lessons than those taught online.

While parents continue to be challenged about the amount of screen time and technology use that children have today we must also remember that times have changed. Children are now wired for the digital age in which they live. They accrue IT skills within seconds and I’m sure you can relate to the common experience of asking your child for help to better understand how your mobile phone or iPad works!

So really, how effective is online learning? Is it simply a backup for face-to-face lessons? Or does it hold some very unique and valuable qualities that can benefit all our children?

High standards of online offerings at JK

The JK online classrooms provide a visual, interactive and multi-sensory platform that appeals to all age ranges and ability levels. It is a launchpad from which tutors and students can share images, text, video and game links. With a modern and creative feel to it, students can choose from a variety of colours and tools to work with. Our unique online classrooms encourage independence and autonomy. Students can carry out concrete written tasks during the lesson, uploading them onto the screen within seconds ready for shared annotation and feedback. Lessons are time efficient and remain as rigorous as when conducted face to face.

In addition, working online can provide a faster-paced, more targeted approach to delivery, helping to engage students and move them on in their learning.

We have found that JK’s exam success over the last few years has been in line with previous years showing that, even though students have missed out on schooling due to Covid, remote tutoring has been as effective as face-to-face tutoring.

We have also found that online lessons have particularly enhanced learning for many SEND children. Each case is different and obviously depends on the nature of the educational need and learning style of the student. For many students we have found it:

  • Reduces social anxiety: For many SEND children, face-to-face interactions can be daunting.
  • Reduces distraction: For students with ADD and ADHD, the relative calm and isolation of learning online at home can be extremely helpful.
  • Comfort in technology: Technology can be a source of solace to many students; as a generation, they are familiar with multiple forms of technology, and, for students with SEN, technology appears impersonal, less invasive, and non-threatening and therefore conducive to learning.
  • Enhances flexibility: Tutors are able to make greater use of audio, visual, or interactive materials, and students can work entirely at their own pace, playing lessons back or downloading materials as necessary.

Benefits of online lessons

Engaging in online tuition also affords students access to a wider range of tutors, no matter where the student or teacher is located. The location of a specialist tutor with a unique skill set living in the Outer Hebrides needs no longer be a barrier for a London-based student.

We are also seeing online tuition becoming more popular in schools and we are increasingly being approached by both state and private schools to support their students with online lessons. The schools are often seeking support for GCSE and A Level classes where the numbers of students are very low and where they are struggling to hire a teacher face to face. JK is able to provide effective online tuition to these students at their school during their school day.

Other benefits of online tutoring include:

Convenience: There is no rush hour travelling, having to adjust your schedule for drop-offs and pick-ups, or having to make small talk with the tutor or other parents. It’s simply focused on the task at hand.

Matching the best tutor to your child’s needs: A greater range of tutors and lesson times allows us to select the ideal tutor for your child’s learning needs and personality.

Flexibility and responsiveness:  Thanks to the versatile nature of online classrooms, each and every lesson can be highly personalised to each individual child and the events of the day or week. This responsiveness and topicality are things that students love.

Comfortable environment: No need to worry about your child forgetting to pack their laptop, study books or drinks. Taking a lesson in the relative calm of home can increase focus and, as discussed previously,  can reduce social anxiety for some students.

Safe and secure: Enables a high level of safety standards through the ability to monitor and record lessons. This enables tracking of every lesson in great detail to ensure that safeguarding procedures are followed, meaning you can rest assured that your child is safe and secure online.

Variety in learning: Offering students different ways to learn improves engagement, focus and enjoyment. It also allows children to improve other skill sets such as IT and communication.

Resource sharing: Cloud storage, Dropbox sharing, easy use of online resources, the ability to play back the lesson and instant tasks/homework sharing and feedback make online tutoring highly efficient.

Quality of online learning

As with all educational endeavours, the quality of teaching and the effectiveness of learning for the students very much depends on the abilities and qualities of the teacher. This is true for both face-to-face and online lessons.

With online lessons, the quality of teaching, coupled with the technology being used, defines the value of the online offering. This is where JK is able to shine with its proven high standard of online tutoring.

When Covid kicked in during early 2020, many teachers and schools scrambled to set up online lessons for their students. But with no experience teaching online and often with technology that wasn’t fit for purpose, it is easy to see how some students found the switch to online lessons frustrating and ineffective.

At JK, we have been delivering effective and well-structured online lessons for over 5 years. We know that teaching online requires a level of adaptation and lesson preparation that differs from face-to-face. Our JK Tutors are adept at delivering remote lessons, having had the time and experience to develop our online offerings into the most effective, enjoyable and efficient lesson delivery styles possible.

Making the best of online

Like with all tuition both in person and online, thorough lesson preparation is vital for a positive student experience and effective teaching. When it comes to online lessons, students require support to ensure they are ready. Their device must be charged and software should be up to date. Photographs or scans of homework must be received by the tutor in good time before a lesson so that the link between tuition and homework is consistent and accountable. Punctuality is of course paramount and is expected by both tutor and student.

If you have been deliberating whether online lessons may be right for your child, we urge you to give it a try. We are sure you will discover that amongst other things, the pandemic has collectively impacted and challenged the world of education, providing evidence that online tuition really works and is a powerful tool in our education toolbox.

 

John

Subjects tutored: I tutor mathematics, of any kind and at any level.

Qualifications:

 

I have a degree in mathematics and a PhD in history/sociology of science. I also have a PGCE in mathematics and numeracy.

Relevant
Experience:
I have tutored mathematics for around eight years, for students from age 10 to adulthood. Until summer 2021, I taught in a secondary school, covering all classes from Years 7 to 13. I am very familiar with the school curriculum and university entrance tests. I have a wide knowledge and experience of extension mathematics, including the UK Mathematics Trust’s competitions.
Why I tutor: The challenge of engaging a student in mathematics, discussing the content with them and being challenged by them, is something I have always and found interesting and rewarding. One of the advantages of tutoring, which I aim to use to its fullest, is that it allows time and space to establish firm foundations through an understanding of underlying principles and processes.

Nicky

Subjects tutored: EYFS, Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 English and maths (curriculum support), 7+ and 11+ preparation

Qualifications:

 

BSc (Hons) Psychology
Institute of Education – P.G.C.E. Primary Education

Relevant
Experience:
For 30 years I worked as a class teacher, mainly in North London, but also in the North West of England. Over the years I have taught all year groups from Reception to Year 6 and I also have a lot of experience teaching children with SEN and EAL. My time in the classroom affords me a strong understanding of the curriculum, enabling me to quickly identify where children have gaps in their knowledge. I develop and deliver effective targeted support to plug these gaps. Delivering interesting and engaging lessons is very important to me; I work hard to make sure children have fun along the way. I’ve worked closely with many hundreds of children and so I tailor my approach to suit a child’s personality and learning style. I treat all my students as individuals.

Why I tutor: I’m a passionate and committed educator and I love what I do. Working with children, nurturing them, and helping them to reach their potential is hugely rewarding. I will never tire of that ‘lightbulb moment’ when something finally clicks with a student. With tutoring, it’s possible to tailor the lesson to meet each student’s precise needs, which isn’t possible in a busy classroom. I feel extremely privileged to be a part of a child’s educational journey.

Katie

Subjects tutored: English and maths for 7+, 8+, 9+, 10+, 11+ and 13+

Qualifications:

 

BA Honours, PGCE, CELTA, Diploma in Creative Writing

Relevant
Experience:
I have over 12 years of teaching experience in both the state and independent sectors. In addition to my classroom experience, I also have extensive one-to-one tutoring experience, both online and in-person, for children between the ages of 6 and 13, including those with SEN and those undertaking entrance exams and SATS.

Why I tutor: As a passionate and conscientious teaching professional, I take great pleasure in enabling students to grow and develop their learning. One-to-one tuition allows me to personalise lessons to each student, catering to their interests and learning styles whilst setting an appropriate level of challenge that enables them to meet their potential.

Nirvana

Subjects tutored: EYFS and KS1 phonics, maths and English, plus KS2 English

Qualifications:

 

BA Comparative Literature; Qualified Teacher Status; MA Education with Montessori (in progress) and Montessori Assistant Certificate for age 3 – 6

Relevant
Experience:
I have 2 years’ experience as a teaching assistant with an agency, working in mainstream primary and special primary and secondary schools, and 1.5 years’ experience as a Year 2 class teacher.
I am currently a literacy intervention tutor for primary pupils with reading difficulties

Why I tutor: Teaching has always been my passion, and when a child is struggling with a particular skill, sometimes a creative one-to-one approach is all they need to unlock their understanding. Tutoring gives me the flexibility to tailor my teaching to a specific child, their needs and their interests.

Deborah

Subjects tutored: I teach 11 plus and 13 plus maths and non-verbal reasoning, 16+ maths and KS3, KS4 and KS5 maths. I also teach Computer Science at KS3 and KS4.

Qualifications:

 

I have a PGCE in Secondary Maths, a BA in Maths and Computer Science, an MA in Education and a BSc in Psychology.

Relevant
Experience:
I have been a teacher for over 28 years and have worked in a wide variety of schools, from large secondary schools to smaller independent schools and special needs schools, working in a variety of roles as class teacher, head of department, KS4 and KS5 coordinator and assistant head teacher.

Why I tutor: I enjoy helping students to achieve, and I work hard to help them enjoy the learning experience. It is always great to see students taking pride in their work and their achievements!

Celia

Subjects tutored: English entrance exams (11+, 13+ and 16+); creative writing; Years 6 – 9 English Language and Literature; IGCSE English Language, English Literature and World Literature; A Level English Literature; IB SL/HL English Literature, IB SL/HL English Language and Literature; ELAT preparation, university applications and personal statements.

Qualifications:

 

BA (Hons) English Literature, MA (Distinction) and PGCE Secondary English, all from Newcastle University.

Relevant
Experience:
I have over 20 years’ experience teaching English at top UK independent schools (including St Paul’s Girls’ School, Charterhouse and Abingdon) and top international schools in Thailand, Dubai and China (including Dulwich College Shanghai).

I am a former Head of English at a UK independent school and an international school in China, and a former Head of Year 13 with responsibility for Oxbridge applications and university support.

I have set and examined 11+ and 13+ entrance exams for a range of independent schools, as well as marking Common Entrance. I have also examined IGCSE English Language and English Literature, A Level English Literature and IB.

Why I tutor: I tutor because I love my subject and I love helping people! I particularly enjoy helping students build their confidence and voice as a writer, enabling them to make real academic progress. I value the creative and academic challenge of creating bespoke lessons for my students which are tailored to their interests. There is a real sense of a partnership between students, their family, JK Educate and the tutor. It also means a great deal to me to keep up my international connections and to support students in countries such as China and Dubai.

Ben

Subjects tutored: Maths from KS3 upwards including school entrance exams, GCSE and international GCSE, A-level, further maths and university preparation.

Qualifications:

 

Imperial College London – Bachelor Degree in Mathematics, 1st Class with honours,
Associate of the Royal College of Science
Barenboim-Said Academy Berlin – Bachelor of Music, 1st Class with honours

Relevant
Experience:
5 years of private tutoring experience, including 1 year with JK

Why I tutor: I find maths an endlessly fascinating subject to teach and I enjoy working with students across a wide range of abilities. I like working one-to-one in order to really understand and improve a student’s personal relationship with the subject. Good maths is essential for most students to achieve their academic goals and whether it’s for moving to a new school or getting better marks in important exams, it’s extremely rewarding for me to use maths to help put students in a stronger position to move on to the next stage in their development.

Nature versus nurture: an on-going debate

Is it time to stop talking about nature versus nurture? It’s probably worth keeping a very open mind on the whole subject, as research continues to inform us with fresh evidence and perspectives for both elements.

Genes and environment are deeply entwined

The latest science shows that genes and environment are deeply entwined. We know that part of who a child is comes from their genes, which contain instructions to build their body and wire their brain. We also know that the culture they grow up in can shape their brain and body in fundamental ways.

New evidence suggests that a dividing line between nature and nurture doesn’t really exist. It seems that the environment causes certain genes to turn on and off (a process called epigenetics). There are also genes that regulate how much the environment affects someone. Genes and environment are ​so inter-connected that it is almost unhelpful to separate them into ‘nature’ and ‘nurture’. Apparently, emotions like joy, sadness and fear, which feel inborn and automatic, are in fact a product of culture. Culture allows one generation to pass information on to the next without it having to be carried by genes.

According to Lisa Feldman Barrett PhD*, a leading scientist known for her revolutionary research in psychology and neuroscience, culture does not determine destiny and neither does genes. Genes and the world you live in combine to make you who you are, and we are therefore all partly responsible for wiring each other’s brains, and the brains of the next generation, through our words and actions. We have the kind of nature that requires nurture, and the two are interconnected.

Parents curate children’s physical and social worlds, and their brains adapt themselves to that world. As children grow up, they perpetuate that world and will eventually pass that culture on to the following generation through their own words and actions, wiring their children’s brains in turn. This cultural inheritance is an efficient, flexible partner to genetic inheritance, and means that the process of evolution doesn’t require all wiring instructions to be in genes.

The way the brain becomes tuned to the languages heard as a baby is just one example. Similarly, if children are exposed to adversity in early life, it may activate certain genes and suppress others, wiring their brain to deal with adversity that may arise in the future.

Literacy, numeracy and cognitive ability

Considering schooling, because literacy and numeracy are the target of much early education, it would be reasonable to assume that they are less heritable than general cognitive ability, which is not taught directly and is viewed as an aptitude inherent in individuals. Another reason for thinking that literacy and numeracy are less heritable than cognitive ability is that literacy and numeracy are relatively recent human inventions, whereas the abstract reasoning and problem solving central to cognitive ability appear to have been key to human evolution.

Some results on genetic research do support the assumption that school achievement in reading and mathematics is less heritable than general cognitive ability in childhood.

For example, a study of more than 2,500 representative twin pairs in the United Kingdom** found substantial heritability for literacy and numeracy in the early school years and lower heritability for cognitive ability.

Identical twins, identical outcomes?

Genes have been shown to influence how well children do at primary school, at the end of compulsory education, and even in different subjects. However, less is known about how genetic and environmental factors contribute to how well a child continues to do academically throughout their time at school.

Using twins, researchers can estimate the proportion of differences that can be explained by genetic factors. Identical twins share 100% of their genes, while non-identical twins share on average 50% of the genes that differ between people, just like other siblings. If identical twins are more alike on a particular trait than non-identical twins, such as school achievement, they can infer that it is influenced by their genes. They can then estimate the heritability of that trait.

When standardised test grades remained similar between primary and secondary school, they found that about 70% of the stability in achievement was explained by genetic factors, while 25% was accounted for by the twins’ shared environment, such as growing up in the same family and attending the same school. The remaining 5% was explained by their non-shared environment, such as different friends or different teachers.

When there was a change in educational achievement, where grades increased or dropped between primary and secondary school, they found this was largely explained by those environmental factors that were not shared by twins.

It’s reasonable to assume that this substantial influence of genes on the continuity of children’s achievement during their time at school can be explained by intelligence. But they found the influence of genes remained substantial – at 60% – even after accounting for intelligence, which was measured using several verbal and nonverbal tests taken by the twins over the course of childhood and adolescence.

Recent scientific advances are revealing more about the influence of genes on the individual. There has been considerable recent success in identifying genetic variants associated with educational attainment through what are called genome-wide association studies (GWAS), pinpointing genetic markers associated with certain traits. However, each genetic marker explains a very small proportion (less than 0.1%) of the individual differences in school performance.

Another method was recently developed that sums up thousands of the genetic markers found in the GWAS studies to instead calculate a genome-wide ‘polygenic score’. This score is now being used, with increasing levels of accuracy, to predict variance in a trait – such as school achievement – for people who are unrelated to each other.

As part of their new study, they used data from previous GWAS analyses to create a polygenic score for education attainment, calculating a score for one of each pair of their 6,000 sets of twins (so that everybody in this part of the study was unrelated). Their findings confirmed the results from the first part of their twins analysis – that the same genetic variants play a role in explaining why children differ in achievement at every stage in development.

Personalised learning and support

In the future, polygenic score prediction, together with the prediction of environmental risks – such as exposure to certain neighbourhoods, family, and school characteristics – might provide a tool to identify children with educational problems very early in life. This would allow early intervention and they could then be provided with individualised learning programmes.

Genetics will become increasingly useful in personalised learning as specific genes responsible for the high heritability of literacy and numeracy are identified. Even though many genes of very small effect are likely to be involved, identification of polygenic composites will make it possible to predict strengths and weaknesses and to create learning programs tailored to the individual child in the future**. The child’s environment provides additional information that can shape the approach and identify likely areas of need.

The nature versus nurture therefore debate continues to stimulate discussion whilst research uncovers exciting and influential new facts to consider as we develop future schooling and parenting for our children.

*Lisa Feldman Barrett, PhD is among the top one per cent most-cited scientists in the world for her revolutionary research in psychology and neuroscience. She is a University Distinguished Professor at Northeastern University with appointments at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Dr Barrett was awarded a Guggenheim fellowship in neuroscience in 2019, and she is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society of Canada

** Literacy and Numeracy Are More Heritable Than Intelligence in Primary School

Association for Psychological Science, Volume 24, Issue 10 (Sage Journals),

Kovas, Voronin, Plomin. Published September 2013.